The interplay between nutrition and physical activity is as frequently misunderstood as the relationship between industrialization and global climate; most people tend to either underemphasize (“as long as I get enough exercise I can eat whatever I want”) or overemphasize (“each mouthful of food must conform to rigid requirements”) the importance of nutrition to exercise performance. Of course, making sound nutritional choices does not guarantee athletic prowess but consistently making poor decisions certainly constrains performance. More specifically, good nutrition is necessary to effectively train and take advantage of training stimuli.
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Bioenergetics refers to the Laws of Thermodynamics as applied to biological systems. The first law, that energy cannot be created or destroyed but is transferred between the system and its surroundings, implies that energy flow into the body must balance energy flow out of the body plus or minus energy storage. In the simplest sense, the flow of energy into the body comes from the diet, and energy flow out is primarily determined by basal energy requirements and physical activity. Changes in storage are mainly reflected by increases or decreases in body fat, at least over the long term. Of course, in reality, energy flow is a bit more complicated.
Understanding how stored energy is used to provide power for exercise gives insight into the probable location, size, and accessibility of carbohydrate, fat, and protein storage in the body. Each storage site will be considered individually because each is mobilized and utilized quite differently during exercise. For example, carbohydrate is stored with water as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscle. These two stores of glycogen have two distinctly different purposes. Muscle glycogen fuels activity within that muscle or shuttles fuel to other power via lactate.
Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) can be roughly divided into three categories: resting metabolic rate (RMR), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and physical activity (PA). Resting metabolism represents the energy demand for maintenance of resting homeostasis and is primarily determined by fat-free mass. Skeletal muscle, the most significant component of fat-free mass, is a large energy drain because of energy-consuming processes such as protein synthesis, ionic regulation, and heat generation. For anyone not performing large amounts of daily PA, RMR is the most significant component of energy expenditure. Finally, diet-induced thermogenesis represents the cost of processing, trafficking, and storing nutrients and depends mainly on energy intake.
Matching supply to demand
In meeting the need to match energy supply to energy demand, relevant periods can range from seconds to years. For example, in seconds, limited stores of ATP and PCR are taxed and must be replenished as other energy-producing pathways are activated. Progressing further, exercise bouts of 5 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 4 hr, and 8 hr will all have different supply and demand considerations due to finite energy stores. Finally, over days, weeks, and years, the matching of supply and demand depends on habitual physical activity patterns and dietary habits.
Consequences of mismatching supply to demand
Once again, no discussion of the consequences of a mismatch between energy supply and demand is fruitful without considering the appropriate time scale. As previously discussed, PCR can donate its phosphate group for the rapid resynthesis of ATP from ADP. Although PCR stores are about five times those of ATP, the supply may be depleted in a couple of seconds during very high-intensity exercise. After that, the stores have to recover during rest periods or a transition to less intense aerobic exercise for replenishment. PCR storage has been demonstrated to respond favorably to supplementation. The increase in storage can enhance high-intensity exercise performance,19,20, which is indirect evidence that PCR stores are limiting short-duration intense activity.
Athletes and other active individuals must conform to the same physical laws but test the boundaries of the metabolic systems because of their high energy and carbohydrate expenditure, obligating considerably higher energy and carbohydrate replacement rates. Although much has been elucidated about the demands that exercise puts on energy-regulating systems and effective dietary manipulations to meet those demands, there is still much to be learned about how the systems are regulated. These fundamental discoveries will enable sports nutritionists to craft optimal dietary strategies that maximize athletic performance. Feel free to visit to know more about – truc tiep bong da